For those of you who are unaware, the lastest edition of the very entertaining Uninformed Journal came out recently. It’s a pretty interesting edition, though not as bulky as some of their previous releases: I hope the project isn’t losing momentum. In particular I found that the article by skape (one half of the duo who originally broke Windows Patchguard [pdf]) about dynamic analysis of memory access in arbitrary software was nice: he outlines a variety of tricks for doing this, using page tables, segment registers and runtime instrumentation, and some research areas where this would be useful, like taint propagation. There’s probably a product or two waiting in there for some enterprising company to create :-).

For those of you who enjoy Uninformed, you can also read skywings (the other half of the areformentioned duo) blog Nynaeve for regular fixes of in-depth technical information.

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That’s the question I found myself asking earlier this month when I was writing a simple compiler for an OCaml dialect called MinCaml. I don’t know if you’ve ever taken a look at the Intel IA32 instruction references, but there are two volumes of detailed descriptions of all the functions one of these CPU provides: about 600 in total!

As this compiler backend was my first real go at writing out assembly (though I’d read quite a lot of it before) I found the task of potentially learning all these instructions extremely intimidating, and wished I had an assembly language “cheat sheet” where I could go to find out the most common (and hence probably the most useful) instructions. So, today I got around to writing a little program to use UDis86 to scan all the binaries in C:\Windows\System32 and my Cygwin /bin directory and spit out some instruction counts. Now, before we see the results let me first say that my sample has a bias in that it’s all precompiled stuff that will be designed to take advantage of only the lowest common denominator of the target CPU instruction sets. This means that the distribution below will probably be quite different than if you scan, say, your machine-specific Gentoo installation. Right, onto the big monstrous Excel pie chart:

IA32 Instruction Incidence

I’ve also uploaded my raw data to my personal site, along with the program I used to get the results for anyone who is interested.

In the finest traditions of top 10 lists everywhere, let’s give a quick rundown of the most popular instructions:

  1. add: is anyone really suprised by this?
  2. mov: again, it’s fairly hard to get work done without moving data around
  3. push/pop: these instructions are commonly used for setting up/destroying function stack frames, hence their popularity despite IA32s register orientation
  4. invalid: do’h! These are from areas of code where udis86 just barfs :-). Their high ranking could mean a lot of instructions are in use that it can’t deal with, or (more likely) it is trying to disassemble executable regions of the binary that just don’t have anything useful in them
  5. cmp: the absolute bedrock of branching on the IA32, but what is suprising is that it’s so much higher than jz. Are there really that many pure numeric comparisions in programs?
  6. dec/inc: I’m fairly suprised that dec beats inc here, especially since sub is so much lower than add in my data: does anyone have a theory?
  7. xor/or: xor no doubt clocks in so high because of the “xor reg, reg” idiom used to zero out registers, but or is quite popular too for something which is really only good for bit flags and the odd if expression…

Well that was fun, in a geeky sort of way! I’d be quite interested in knowing the reasons behind some of the oddities above: maybe another blog entry is in order…?

Edit: an experienced reverse engineer, t_w, commented on Reddit that my count for add was quite high, and that it might be caused by counting junk code. It turns out that the byte sequence 0x0000 disassembles to an add instruction, which skews my results since the null byte is common padding for executable .text sections. However, after correcting for this (the charts above have taken this into account) it still leaves add in first place (it had 83355055 counted occurances before excluding this sequence, but still 45303805 after exclusion).